In order to test our hypothesis that muscle condition has an effect on the cognition of self-motion and consequently on the ventilatory response during exercise, six healthy subjects performed a moderate incremental exercise test (IET) on a cycle ergometer under two conditions [resistance exercise condition (REC) and control condition (CC)]. In the REC, resistance exercise (30 incline leg presses) was conducted during two sessions scheduled at 48 and then 24 h prior to the IET. For the CC, the subjects were instructed to refrain from participating in strenuous exercise for a period of 2 days prior to the IET. In the IET, the workload was increased from 78 to 118 watts in steps of 8 watts every 3 min. Although the ventilatory response during the IET was significantly higher in the REC than in the CC, there were no significant differences in cognitive indexes (RPE and awareness of change in workload) between the two conditions. In addition, the magnitude of muscle soreness was significantly higher in the REC than in the CC. However, the level of soreness in the REC was very low, and there were no significant differences in blood lactate concentration and integrated EMG between the two conditions. These results suggest that a change in peripheral neural reflex is the primary cause of increased ventilatory response to moderate exercise after resistance exercise, although the role of a cognitive element cannot be absolutely excluded.