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Vegetarian dietary patterns and the risk of breast cancer in a low-risk population.

Authors
  • Penniecook-Sawyers, Jason A1
  • Jaceldo-Siegl, Karen1
  • Fan, Jing1
  • Beeson, Larry1
  • Knutsen, Synnove1
  • Herring, Patti1
  • Fraser, Gary E1
  • 1 Adventist Health Study-2,Loma Linda University,Loma Linda,CA 92350,USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
British Journal Of Nutrition
Publisher
Cambridge University Press
Publication Date
May 28, 2016
Volume
115
Issue
10
Pages
1790–1797
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1017/S0007114516000751
PMID: 26987270
Source
Medline
Keywords
License
Unknown

Abstract

Among cancers in American women, breast cancer (BC) has the second highest incidence and mortality. The association of BC with diet has been inconsistent. Studies that evaluate associations with dietary patterns are less common and reflect an individual's whole diet. We associated dietary patterns with the risk of BC in American women of the Adventist Health Study-2 (AHS-2), a prospective cohort of 96 001 subjects recruited between 2002 and 2007. Answers to a previously validated FFQ were used to classify subjects to vegan, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, pesco-vegetarian, semi-vegetarian and non-vegetarian dietary patterns. Incident BC were identified by matching AHS-2 subjects to data from forty-eight state cancer registries. Statistical analyses used proportional hazard regression analyses with covariates that were chosen a priori. From 50 404 female participants (26 193 vegetarians), we identified 892 incident BC cases, with 478 cases among vegetarians. As compared with non-vegetarians, all vegetarians combined did not have a significantly lower risk (hazard ratio (HR) 0·97; CI 0·84, 1·11; P=0·64). However, vegans showed consistently lower (but non-significant) point estimates when compared with non-vegetarians (all cases: HR 0·78; CI 0·58, 1·05; P=0·09). In summary, participants in this cohort who follow a vegetarian dietary pattern did not experience a lower risk of BC as compared with non-vegetarians, although lower risk in vegans is possible. These findings add to the very limited literature associating vegetarian diets with BC risk and can assist nutritionists when evaluating the impact of these diets. The findings will also motivate further evaluation of vegan diets and their special characteristics.

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