Vascular trauma occurs relatively infrequently in association with general orthopedic trauma but may be seen more often in injuries involving joint dislocations and areas in which vascular structures are tethered at the fracture site. The mechanisms of vascular trauma are identified, and the general principles in managing these injuries, including the operative approach to the injury itself and the options in repairing both arterial and venous injuries, are discussed. The role of fasciotomy and primary amputation are also reviewed. Several specific injuries, including pelvic fracture, knee dislocation, shoulder and upper limb injuries, complex tibial fractures, and iatrogenic injuries, are examined from diagnostic and management perspectives. Despite an ongoing evolution in the diagnosis and management of these often challenging injuries, the essential requirements for a good clinical outcome remain early recognition of the dysvascular limb and rapid institution of therapy.