Background: To evaluate the concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in neovascular or edematous retinal diseases. Methods: In the clinical comparative interventional study, VEGF and bFGF concentrations in aqueous humor samples of 35 patients with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD), 21 patients with diabetic macular edema and 24 patients of a control group were measured using a solid-phase chemiluminescence immunoassay. Results: Concentrations of VEGF and bFGF, respectively, were significantly higher in the diabetic group (184.7 ± 107.0 and 5.0 ± 10.2 pg/l) than in the AMD group (107.7 ± 73.0 pg/l, p = 0.002; 2.2 ± 7.4 pg/l, p = 0.002) and the control group (71.5 ± 94.7 pg/l, p = 0.001; 0.00 pg/l, p = 0.001). The two latter groups did not vary significantly (p = 0.10). Conclusions: VEGF and bFGF are present in considerably higher concentrations in eyes with diabetic macular edema than in eyes with exudative AMD or normal eyes. The differences were more marked for VEGF than for bFGF.