In order to investigate polymorphic backgrounds of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR) in the Vietnamese, we analyzed 495 blood samples of randomly selected healthy individuals in Hanoi for the delta F508 mutation and TG-repeats, poly-T, and M470V polymorphisms. We compared their distributions with those of Caucasians and other Asian populations. No delta F508 mutation was found, being consistent with the extremely low incidence of cystic fibrosis (CF) in Vietnam. Allele frequency of the T5 allele promoting exon 9 skipping was 0.037. Greater number of TG-repeats, which is known to facilitate this aberrant splicing, was a predominant trend in the Vietnamese and other Asians. A "T5-TG12-V470" haplotype was most common (29/37) among T5-bearing haplotypes. Three major haplotypes, T7-TG12-M470, T7-TG11-V470, and T7-TG12-V470, estimated by PHASE program, related to 92% of the population. This is the first study of the CFTR gene among the Vietnamese.