Prostaglandins (PGs) are hormone-like mediators in many physiological and pathological processes that are present in all vertebrates, in some terrestrial and aquatic invertebrates, and have also been identified in some macroalgae. They have recently been reported also in marine microalgae but their role as chemical mediators is largely unknown. Here we studied the expression pattern of the PG biosynthetic pathway during different growth phases of the centric diatom Thalassiosira rotula and assessed the release of PGs in the surrounding environment for the first time. We show that enzymes responsible for PGs formation such as cyclooxygenase, prostaglandin E synthase 2-like and prostaglandin F synthase are mainly expressed at the end of the exponential phase and that PGs are released especially during the stationary and senescent phases, suggesting a possible signaling function for these compounds. Phylogenetic analysis of the limiting enzyme, COX, indicate the presence in diatoms of more than one enzyme related to the oxidative metabolism of fatty acids belonging to the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily. These findings suggest a more complex evolution and diversity of metabolic pathways leading to the synthesis of lipid mediators in diatoms.