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Variability of Water-Soluble Forms of Choline Concentrations in Human Milk during Storage, after Pasteurization, and among Women

Authors
  • moukarzel, sara
  • wiedeman, alejandra m.
  • soberanes, lynda s.
  • dyer, roger a.
  • innis, sheila m.
  • lamers, yvonne
Publication Date
Dec 11, 2019
Source
MDPI
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

Choline is critical for infant development and mother&rsquo / s milk is the sole source of choline for fully breastfed infants until six months of age. Human milk choline consists to 85% of water-soluble forms of choline including free choline (FC), phosphocholine (PhosC), and glycerophosphocholine (GPC). Donor milk requires safe handling procedures such as cold storage and pasteurization. However, the stability of water-soluble forms of choline during these processes is not known. The objectives of this research were to determine the effect of storage and pasteurization on milk choline concentration, and the diurnal intra- and inter-individual variability of water-soluble choline forms. Milk samples were collected from healthy women who were fully breastfeeding a full-term, singleton infant &lt / 6 months. Milk total water-soluble forms of choline, PhosC, and GPC concentrations did not change during storage at room temperature for up to 4 h. Individual and total water-soluble forms of choline concentrations did not change after storage for 24 h in the refrigerator or for up to one week in the household freezer. Holder pasteurization decreased PhosC and GPC, and thereby total water-soluble choline form concentrations by &lt / 5%. We did not observe diurnal variations in PhosC and total water-soluble forms of choline concentrations, but significant differences in FC and GPC concentrations across five sampling time points throughout one day. In conclusion, these outcomes contribute new knowledge for the derivation of evidence-informed guidelines for the handling and storage of expressed human milk as well as the development of optimized milk collection and storage protocols for research studies.

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