Urinary peptides gained significant attention as potential biomarkers especially in the context of kidney and cardiovascular disease. In this manuscript the recent literature since 2015 on urinary peptide investigation in human kidney and cardiovascular disease is reviewed. The technology most commonly used in this context is capillary electrophoresis coupled mass spectrometry, in part owed to the large database available and the well-defined dataspace. Several studies based on over 1000 subjects were reported in the recent past, especially examining CKD273, a classifier for assessment of chronic kidney disease based on 273 urine peptides. Interestingly, the most abundant urinary peptides are generally collagen fragments, which may have gone undetected for some time as they are typically modified via proline hydroxylation. The data available suggest that urinary peptides specifically depict inflammation and fibrosis, and may serve as a non-invasive tool to assess fibrosis, which appears to be a key driver in kidney and cardiovascular disease. The recent successful completion of the first urinary peptide guided intervention trial, PRIORITY, is expected to further spur clinical application of urinary peptidomics, aiming especially at early detection of chronic diseases, prediction of progression and prognosis of drug response. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.