We report two cases of localized tracheomalacia, one associated with esophageal atresia, and one isolated. The pathophysiology explains that the symptoms are more important during or shortly after eating, the alimentary bowl crushing the trachea against the aorta, or the innominate artery. The exact cause of tracheomalacia is unknown. Esophageal atresia is frequently associated. The tracheal compression is more often due to the innominate artery, because its origin is located on the left side of the trachea in infants. The aorta or a vascular anomaly are rarely implicated. The symptoms of tracheomalacia are largely due to airway obstruction during expiration: stridor, baking cough, and the life-threatening "dying spell". For diagnosis, the endoscopy is the most important investigation. Among the many methods of treatment which have been proposed, the aortopexy appears to be the technique giving the best results. A single acute apneic attack is an absolute indication for surgery. It is also important to rule out severe gastroesophageal reflux, which can produce the same symptoms.