This review article attempts to correlate Ayurvedic pharmacology and therapeutic claims for Tinospora cordifolia (Tc) with the evidence generated using scientific research methodology. In the present paper, a brief description of Ayurvedic pharmacology of the plant is presented. The work carried out by researchers using extracts of Tc in various areas such as diabetes, liver damage, free radical mediated injury, infections, stress and cancer have been reviewed. Also discussed are the immunomodulatory, diuretic, antiinflammatory, analgesic, anticholinesterase and gastrointestinal protective effects. An attempt has been made to provide the readers with the array of outcome variables, which can be further worked upon in clinical studies. Finally, this paper puts forth issues that need to be addressed by researchers in the future.