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Validation of the Taiwanese Version of ACE-III (T-ACE-III) to Detect Dementia in a Memory Clinic.

  • Yu, Ruan-Ching1
  • Mukadam, Naaheed1
  • Kapur, Narinder2
  • Stott, Joshua2
  • Hu, Chaur-Jong3, 4
  • Hong, Chien-Tai3, 4
  • Yang, Cheng-Chang3, 5
  • Chan, Lung3, 4
  • Huang, Li-Kai3, 4
  • Livingston, Gill1
  • 1 Department of Mental Health of Older People, University College London, London, UK.
  • 2 Department of Clinical, Educational and Health Psychology, University College London, London, UK.
  • 3 Department of Neurology and Dementia Center, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, New Taipei City, Taiwan. , (Taiwan)
  • 4 Department of Neurology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. , (Taiwan)
  • 5 Brain and Consciousness Research Center, TMU-Shuang Ho Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan. , (Taiwan)
Published Article
Archives of clinical neuropsychology : the official journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Publication Date
Feb 22, 2022
DOI: 10.1093/arclin/acab089
PMID: 34718367


The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination III (ACE-III) is a 100-points cognitive test used in detecting dementia in many countries. There has been no validation study of the ACE-III in patients with suspected dementia in a Taiwanese population, where the language is traditional Chinese. We aimed to culturally adapt and validate the ACE-III as a cognitive assessment tool for differentiating between people with and without dementia presenting to healthcare professionals in Taiwan with possible dementia. We culturally adapted the ACE-III for Taiwan (T-ACE-III) and tested it with consenting patients with suspected dementia in northern Taiwan who had been through the diagnostic process. We calculated receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves to test the ability of the T-ACE-III to differentiate between dementia and non-dementia cases using clinician diagnosis as the gold standard. We generated the Youden Index to determine the best cut-off score. We recruited 90 Taiwanese individuals aged 49-93 years: 24 males and 33 females had dementia and 12 males and 21 females did not. The area under the ROC curve was 0.99 for distinguishing dementia from non-dementia. The T-ACE-III had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 78.8% when the cut-off score was 86/87. With a cut-off value of 73/74, the specificity was 100.0%, and sensitivity 89.5%. The highest Youden Index was 0.895, indicating the best overall cut-off point to be 73/74. The T-ACE-III is an acceptable cognitive test with excellent psychometric properties for discriminating dementia from non-dementia in Taiwanese populations in memory clinic settings. © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: [email protected]

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