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Validation of the Global Limb Anatomic Staging System in first-time lower extremity revascularization.

Authors
  • Liang, Patric1
  • Marcaccio, Christina L1
  • Darling, Jeremy D1
  • Kong, Daniel1
  • Rao, Vaishnavi1
  • St John, Emily1
  • Wyers, Mark C1
  • Hamdan, Allen D1
  • Schermerhorn, Marc L2
  • 1 Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. , (Israel)
  • 2 Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Israel)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Journal of vascular surgery
Publication Date
May 01, 2021
Volume
73
Issue
5
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.jvs.2020.08.151
PMID: 33091516
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

The Global Limb Anatomic Staging System (GLASS) was developed as a new anatomic classification scheme to grade the severity of chronic limb threatening ischemia. We evaluated the ability of this anatomic grading system to determine major adverse limb events after lower extremity revascularization. We performed a single-institutional retrospective review of 1060 consecutive patients who had undergone 1180 first-time open or endovascular revascularization procedures for chronic limb threatening ischemia from 2005 to 2014. Using the review of angiographic images, the limbs were classified as GLASS stage 1, 2, or 3. The primary composite outcome was reintervention, major amputation (below- or above-the-knee amputation), and/or restenosis (>3.5× step-up by duplex criteria) events (RAS). The secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality, failure to cross the lesion by endovascular methods, and a comparison between bypass vs endovascular intervention. Kaplan-Meier estimates were used to determine the event rates at 1 and 5 years, and Cox regression analysis was used to adjust for baseline differences among the GLASS stages. Of all patients undergoing first-time revascularization, imaging studies were available for 1180 procedures (91%) for GLASS grading. Of these procedures, 552 were open bypass (47%) and 628 were endovascular intervention (53%). Compared with GLASS stage 1 disease (n = 267, 23%), stage 2 (n = 367; 31%) and stage 3 (n = 546; 42%) disease were associated with a greater risk of RAS at 1 year (stage 1, 33% vs stage 2, 48% vs stage 3, 53%) and 5 years (stage 1, 45% [reference]; stage 2, 65%; hazard ratio [HR], 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.2; P < .001; stage 3, 69%; HR, 2.3; 95% CI, 1.7-2.9; P < .001). These differences were mainly driven by reintervention and restenosis rather than by major amputation. The 5-year mortality was similar for stage 2 and 3 compared with stage 1 disease (stage 1, 40% [reference]; stage 2, 45%; HR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.8-1.4; P = .69; stage 3, 49%; HR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.0-1.6; P = .11). For all attempted endovascular interventions, failure to cross a target lesion increased with advancing GLASS stage (stage 1, 4.5% vs stage 2, 6.3% vs stage 3, 13.3%; P < .01). Compared with open bypass (n = 552; 46.8%), endovascular intervention (n = 628; 53.3%) was associated with a higher rate of 5-year RAS for GLASS stage 1 (49% vs 34%; HR, 1.9; 95% CI, [1.1-3.5; P = .03), stage 2 (69% vs 52%; HR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2-2.5; P < .01), and stage 3 (83% vs 61%; HR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2-2.0; P < .01) disease. For patients undergoing first-time lower extremity revascularization, the GLASS can be used to predict for reintervention and restenosis. Bypass resulted in better long-term outcomes compared with endovascular intervention for all GLASS stages. Copyright © 2020 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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