Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA125, and squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCC) were evaluated in paired vaginal fluid and serum samples from 69 women, mean age 40.6 (20-78) years. Fifteen of the subjects were normal females (controls), 12 were pregnant, 20 had benign gynecological diseases, 5 presented severe cervical dysplasias and 17 suffered from cancer of the genital tract. Highly elevated CEA, CA125 and SCC concentrations (median, range) were found in vaginal fluid: 186 ng/ml (12-5420); 890 U/ml (54-65000); 1600 ng/ml (27-13000) respectively, compared with those in the paired serum samples: 1 ng/ml (0.5-8.6); 12 U/ml (3.0-1590); 1 ng/ml (0.3-19). Vaginal fluid CEA, CA125 and SCC values were significantly different among the five studied groups (p < 0.0002; p < 0.02: p < 0.002 respectively), being significantly higher in the patients with benign gynecological diseases, compared with those in the patients with malignancies of the genital tract (p < 0.0001; p < 0.02; p < 0.005), and those in controls (p < 0.02; p < 0.007; p < 0.02 respectively). The results of this study suggest that: 1) CEA, CA125 and SCC seem to be normal constituents of vaginal fluid. 2) The distribution of CEA, CA125 and SCC between vaginal fluid and the circulation is affected by pregnancy, inflammation and cancer of the genital tract.