Using a new in vitro procedure of the isolated perfused rat pancreas with vagal innervation, electrical vagal stimulation produced an increase in both insulin and glucagon secretion in proportion to the pulse frequency, but an inhibition in somatostatin release. When atropine was infused, both insulin and glucagon responses to vagal stimulation were partially suppressed, whereas somatostatin release was enhanced. In the presence of hexamethonium, vagal stimulation failed to affect insulin, glucagon, or somatostatin secretion. Propranolol partially blocked both insulin and glucagon responses but did not influence somatostatin response. Phentolamine had no significant effect on release of hormones. Simultaneous administration of propranolol and phentolamine tended to inhibit both insulin and glucagon responses to vagal stimulation. These findings suggest that not only a cholinergic but also a noncholinergic neuron may be involved in vagal regulation of pancreatic hormone secretion and that these neurons may be under the control of preganglionic vagal fibers via nicotinic receptors.