Affordable Access

Access to the full text

Utilization of Bracing Arms as Additional Reinforcement in Pultruded Glass Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composite Cross-Arms: Creep Experimental and Numerical Analyses

Authors
  • Asyraf, Muhammad Rizal Muhammad
  • Ishak, Mohamad Ridzwan1,
  • Sapuan, Salit Mohd2
  • Yidris, Noorfaizal
  • 1 Aerospace Malaysia Research Centre (AMRC), Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
  • 2 Advanced Engineering Materials and Composites Research Centre (AEMC), Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor, Malaysia
Type
Published Article
Journal
Polymers
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Feb 19, 2021
Volume
13
Issue
4
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/polym13040620
PMID: 33669491
PMCID: PMC7922202
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Article
License
Green

Abstract

The application of pultruded glass fiber-reinforced polymer composites (PGFRPCs) as a replacement for conventional wooden cross-arms in transmission towers is relatively new. Although numerous studies have conducted creep tests on coupon-scale PGFRPC cross-arms, none had performed creep analyses on full-scale PGFRPC cross-arms under actual working load conditions. Thus, this work proposed to study the influence of an additional bracing system on the creep responses of PGFRPC cross-arms in a 132 kV transmission tower. The creep behaviors and responses of the main members in current and braced PGFRPC cross-arm designs were compared and evaluated in a transmission tower under actual working conditions. These PGFRPC cross-arms were subjected to actual working loads mimicking the actual weight of electrical cables and insulators for a duration of 1000 h. The cross-arms were installed on a custom test rig in an open area to simulate the actual environment of tropical climate conditions. Further creep analysis was performed by using Findley and Burger models on the basis of experimental data to link instantaneous and extended (transient and viscoelastic) creep strains. The addition of braced arms to the structure reduced the total strain of a cross-arm’s main member beams and improved elastic and viscous moduli. The addition of bracing arms improved the structural integrity and stiffness of the cross-arm structure. The findings of this study suggested that the use of a bracing system in cross-arm structures could prolong the structures’ service life and subsequently reduce maintenance effort and cost for long-term applications in transmission towers.

Report this publication

Statistics

Seen <100 times