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Using Optogenetics to Investigate the Shared Mechanisms of Apical-Basal Polarity and Mitosis.

Authors
  • Crellin, Helena A
  • Buckley, Clare E
Publication Date
Feb 20, 2024
Source
Apollo - University of Cambridge Repository
Keywords
Language
English
License
Green
External links

Abstract

The initiation of apical-basal (AB) polarity and the process of mitotic cell division are both characterised by the generation of specialised plasma membrane and cortical domains. These are generated using shared mechanisms, such as asymmetric protein accumulation, Rho GTPase signalling, cytoskeletal reorganisation, vesicle trafficking, and asymmetric phosphoinositide distribution. In epithelial tissue, the coordination of AB polarity and mitosis in space and time is important both during initial epithelial development and to maintain tissue integrity and ensure appropriate cell differentiation at later stages. Whilst significant progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms underlying cell division and AB polarity, it has so far been challenging to fully unpick the complex interrelationship between polarity, signalling, morphogenesis, and cell division. However, the recent emergence of optogenetic protein localisation techniques is now allowing researchers to reversibly control protein activation, localisation, and signalling with high spatiotemporal resolution. This has the potential to revolutionise our understanding of how subcellular processes such as AB polarity are integrated with cell behaviours such as mitosis and how these processes impact whole tissue morphogenesis. So far, these techniques have been used to investigate processes such as cleavage furrow ingression, mitotic spindle positioning, and in vivo epithelial morphogenesis. This review describes some of the key shared mechanisms of cell division and AB polarity establishment, how they are coordinated during development and how the advance of optogenetic techniques is furthering this research field.

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