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Using Network Science to Evaluate Exercise-Associated Brain Changes in Older Adults

Authors
  • Burdette, Jonathan H.1
  • Laurienti, Paul J.1
  • Espeland, Mark A.2
  • Morgan, Ashley1
  • Telesford, Qawi3
  • Vechlekar, Crystal D.4
  • Hayasaka, Satoru2
  • Jennings, Janine M.5
  • Katula, Jeffrey A.6
  • Kraft, Robert A.3
  • Rejeski, W. Jack6
  • 1 Department of Radiology, Laboratory for Complex Brain Networks, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
  • 2 Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
  • 3 Department of Biomedical Engineering, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
  • 4 Neuroscience Program, Wake Forest University Health Sciences, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
  • 5 Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
  • 6 Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA
Type
Published Article
Journal
Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Publisher
Frontiers Media SA
Publication Date
Jun 07, 2010
Volume
2
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2010.00023
Source
Frontiers
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Neuroscience
  • Original Research
License
Green

Abstract

Literature has shown that exercise is beneficial for cognitive function in older adults and that aerobic fitness is associated with increased hippocampal tissue and blood volumes. The current study used novel network science methods to shed light on the neurophysiological implications of exercise-induced changes in the hippocampus of older adults. Participants represented a volunteer subgroup of older adults that were part of either the exercise training (ET) or healthy aging educational control (HAC) treatment arms from the Seniors Health and Activity Research Program Pilot (SHARP-P) trial. Following the 4-month interventions, MRI measures of resting brain blood flow and connectivity were performed. The ET group's hippocampal cerebral blood flow (CBF) exhibited statistically significant increases compared to the HAC group. Novel whole-brain network connectivity analyses showed greater connectivity in the hippocampi of the ET participants compared to HAC. Furthermore, the hippocampus was consistently shown to be within the same network neighborhood (module) as the anterior cingulate cortex only within the ET group. Thus, within the ET group, the hippocampus and anterior cingulate were highly interconnected and localized to the same network neighborhood. This project shows the power of network science to investigate potential mechanisms for exercise-induced benefits to the brain in older adults. We show a link between neurological network features and CBF, and it is possible that this alteration of functional brain networks may lead to the known improvement in cognitive function among older adults following exercise.

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