Several insights from the clinical treatment of breast cancer patients have revealed that only a portion of patients achieve the expected curative effect after traditional targeted therapy, that surgical treatment may promote the development of cancer metastasis, and that the optimal combination of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and traditional treatment is not clear. Therefore, a more precise classification of breast cancer and selection of treatment methods should be undertaken to improve the efficacy of clinical treatment. In the clinical treatment of breast cancer, cell communication molecules are often selected as therapeutic targets. However, various cell communications are not static. Their dynamic changes are related to communicating cells, communicating molecules, and various intertwined internal and external environmental factors. Understanding the dynamic microenvironment can help us improve therapeutic efficacy and provide new ways to more accurately determine the cancer status. Therefore, this review describes multiple types of cellular communication in the breast cancer microenvironment and incorporates internal and external environmental factors as variable signaling factors in cell communication. Using dynamic and developmental concepts, we summarize the functional changes in signaling molecules and cells to aid in the diagnosis and treatment of breast cancer.