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Use of sequence microdivergence in mycobacterial ortholog to analyze contributions of the water-activating loop histidine of Escherichia coli uracil-DNA glycosylase in reactant binding and catalysis.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
0006-291X
Publication Date
Volume
320
Issue
3
Pages
893–899
Identifiers
PMID: 15240132
Source
Medline

Abstract

Uracil-DNA glycosylase (Ung), a DNA repair enzyme, pioneers uracil excision repair pathway. Structural determinations and mutational analyses of the Ung class of proteins have greatly facilitated our understanding of the mechanism of uracil excision from DNA. More recently, a hybrid quantum-mechanical/molecular mechanical analysis revealed that while the histidine (H67 in EcoUng) of the GQDPYH motif (omega loop) in the active site pocket is important in positioning the reactants, it makes an unfavorable energetic contribution (penalty) in achieving the transition state intermediate. Mutational analysis of this histidine is unavailable from any of the Ung class of proteins. A complication in demonstrating negative role of a residue, especially when located within the active site pocket, is that the mutants with enhanced activity are rarely obtained. Interestingly, unlike the most Ung proteins, the H67 equivalent in the omega loop in mycobacterial Ung is represented by P67. Exploiting this natural diversity to maintain structural integrity of the active site, we transplanted an H67P mutation in EcoUng. Uracil inhibition assays and binding of a proteinaceous inhibitor, Ugi (a transition state substrate mimic), with the mutant (H67P) revealed that its active site pocket was not perturbed. The catalytic efficiency (Vmax/Km) of the mutant was similar to that of the wild type Ung. However, the mutant showed increased Km and Vmax. Together with the data from a double mutation H67P/G68T, these observations provide the first biochemical evidence for the proposed diverse roles of H67 in catalysis by Ung.

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