The chemical environment and enzymes in the gastrointestinal (GI) membrane limit the oral absorption of some vitamins. The GI epithelium also contributes to the poor permeability of numerous antioxidant agents. Thus, lipophilic vitamins do not readily dissolve in the GI tract, and therefore they have low bioavailability. Nanomedicine has the potential to improve the delivery efficiency of oral vitamins. In particular, the use of lipid nanocarriers for certain vitamins that are administered orally can provide improved solubility, chemical stability, epithelium permeability and bioavailability, half-life, nidus targeting, and fewer adverse effects. These lipid nanocarriers include self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDSs), nanoemulsions, microemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs), and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs). The use of nontoxic excipients and sophisticated material engineering of lipid nanosystems allows for control of the physicochemical properties of the nanoparticles and improved GI permeation via mucosal or lymphatic transport. In this review, we highlight recent progress in the development of lipid nanocarriers for vitamin delivery. In addition, the same lipid nanocarriers used for vitamins may also be effective as carriers of vitamin derivatives, and therefore enhance their oral bioavailability. One example is the incorporation of d-&alpha / -tocopheryl polyethylene glycol succinate (TPGS) as the emulsifier in lipid nanocarriers to increase the solubility and inhibit P-glycoprotein (P-gp) efflux. We also survey the concepts and discuss the mechanisms of nanomedical techniques that are used to develop vitamin-loaded nanocarriers.