(i) R(rs), X(rs) as well as Re(rs) and Xe(rs) revealed no significant influence of sedation. However, separate analysis of inspiration and expiration revealed a significant influence of sedation on all inspiratory impedance parameters. (ii) During the 24 min period after sedation, almost all inspiratory parameters were found significantly dependent on the time course of sedation whereas expiratory parameters Re10, Xe1, and Xe5 were not influenced. These results indicate that confounding factors due to sedation act mainly during inspiration. Muscle relaxation in upper airways due to xylazine is suspected to be the main cause of these phenomena.