Histolyn CYL, the yeast phase reagent, has been employed as the antigen in an enzyme immunoassay (ELISA) to detect antibody to Histoplasma capsulatum in sera from experimentally sensitized rabbits and from humans with histoplasmosis. Three different lots of Histolyn CYL were initially evaluated with respect to antibody detection in individual and pooled rabbit serum specimens. Optimal reactivity was obtained with 4.5 micrograms (total dry weight) per ml of lots 2 and 3 of the reagent. The optimally diluted pooled reagent detected antibody titers ranging from 1:16 to 1:8192 in 36 rabbit sera. In contrast, a marked decrease in sensitivity was evidenced when the same sera were assayed by complement fixation and immunodiffusion tests with commercially available reference reagents. Complement fixation titers ranged from 0 to 1:128 and immunodiffusion tests on undiluted sera were positive with only 5 specimens. Twenty-five sera from patients with acute, chronic and disseminated histoplasmosis were also assayed by the ELISA with the reagent described above. Titers ranged from less than 1:16 to 1:20,480 or greater. Complement fixation titers ranged from 0 to 1:1024 (mycelial antigen) and from 0 to 1:256 (whole yeast cell antigen). No antibody was detected in 7 specimens with mycelial antigen or in 3 specimens with the yeast cell antigen. Immunodiffusion tests on undiluted sera were positive with 9 of 11 specimens. Minimal cross reactivity was evidenced when Histolyn CYL was used in the ELISA to detect anti-Coccidioides immitis antibody in sera from infected animals and humans. These data encourage the continued development of this method for the serodiagnosis of human histoplasmal infection.