Sepsis is defined as a dysregulated inflammatory response, which ultimately results from a perturbed interaction of both an altered immune system and the biomass and virulence of involved pathogens. This response has been tied to the intestinal microbiota, as the microbiota and its associated metabolites play an essential role in regulating the host immune response to infection. In turn, critical illness as well as necessary health care treatments result in a collapse of the intestinal microbiota diversity and a subsequent loss of health-promoting short chain fatty acids, such as butyrate, leading to the development of a maladaptive pathobiome. These perturbations of the microbiota contribute to the dysregulated immune response and organ failure associated with sepsis. Several case series have reported the ability of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) to restore the host immune response and aid in recovery of septic patients. Additionally, animal studies have revealed the mechanism of FMT rescue in sepsis is likely related to the ability of FMT to restore butyrate producing bacteria and alter the innate immune response aiding in pathogen clearance. However, several studies have reported lethal complications associated with FMT, including bacteremia. Therefore, FMT in the treatment of sepsis is and should remain investigational until a more detailed mechanism of how FMT restores the host immune response in sepsis is determined, allowing for the development of more fine-tuned microbiota therapies. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.