The increased occurrence of chronic diseases related to lifestyle or environmental conditions may have a detrimental effect on long-term health if not diagnosed and controlled in time. For this reason, it is important to develop new noninvasive early diagnosis equipment that allows improvement of the current diagnostic methods. This, in turn, has led to an exponential development of technology applied to the medical sector, such as the electronic nose. In addition, the appearance of this type of technology has allowed the possibility of studying diseases from another point of view, such as through breath analysis. This paper presents a bibliographic review of past and recent studies, selecting those investigations in which a patient population was studied with electronic nose technology, in order to identify potential applications of this technology in the detection of respiratory and digestive diseases through the analysis of volatile organic compounds present in the breath.