Human neutrophils are the first line of defense against bacterial and viral infections. They eliminate pathogens through phagocytosis, which activate the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) pathway resulting in synthesis of leukotrienes. Using HPLC analysis, flow cytometry, and other biochemical methods, we studied the effect of synthetic oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) able to fold into G-quadruplex structures on the main functions of neutrophils. Designed ODNs contained four human telomere TTAGGG repeats (G4) including those with phosphorothioate oligoguanosines attached to the end(s) of G-quadruplex core. Just modified analogues of G4 was shown to more actively than parent ODN penetrate into cells, improve phagocytosis of Salmonella typhimurium bacteria, affect 5-LOX activation, the cytosol calcium ion level, and the oxidative status of neutrophils. As evident from CD and UV spectroscopy data, the presence of oligoguanosines flanking G4 sequence leads to dramatic changes in G-quadruplex topology. While G4 folds into a single antiparallel structure, two main folded forms have been identified in solutions of modified ODNs: antiparallel and dominant, more stable parallel. Thus, both the secondary structure of ODNs and their ability to penetrate into the cytoplasm of cells are important for the activation of neutrophil cellular effects. Our results offer new clues for understanding the role of G-quadruplex ligands in regulation of integral cellular processes and for creating the antimicrobial agents of a new generation.