Alcohol is part of the history of humanity, seemingly as a result of countless factors including the easy production of alcoholic beverages in practically all regions of the world. The authors studied aspects of the use of and the dependence on alcohol in Brazil, through a household survey conducted by Centro Brasileiro de Informações sobre Drogas Psicotrópicas (CEBRID). A total of 8,589 interviews were held in 107 of the largest cities in Brazil, all of them with more than 200 thousand inhabitants. The study was planned to gather information within the household environment about a stratified probabilistic sample obtained in three selection phases: 1) the censitaire sectors for each municipality, 2) a systematic randomized sampling, and 3) drafting a respondent by lot in each household to provide information. Approximately 11.2% of the subjects were concerned with their own consumption of alcohol. The signs/symptoms of the syndrome of dependence evident in a greater percentage were the desire to stop or reduce the use of alcohol and to stop or reduce resorting to alcoholic beverages more often than desired, as reported by 14.5 and 9.4% of the respondents, respectively. The regions in Brazil with the highest percentage of dependents were the North (16.3%) and the Northeast (19.9%). According to the estimates obtained in the survey, 5.2% of the teenagers were concerned about the use of alcohol. The estimates obtained in this survey reveal a need to implant specific preventive programs for the problem of alcohol, especially for the very young.