From the very first, the small community that was to become Bytown, and later Ottawa, was an intellectually active place. There were groups engaged in research into a wide range of subjects in the 19th century. These activities reflected first the priorities of the military period and then the interests not only of entrepreneurs and industry but also of national governments. No comparable intellectual ferment occurred in the fields of education or of medicine until after World War II, mainly because education and health were provincial responsibilities. Urology became a clinical surgical specialty, with its generally accepted boundaries of the urinary tract of both sexes and the male genital tract, towards the end of the 19th century. Urology appeared as a surgical specialty in the Ottawa area after World War I. Urologists played an active role in founding and developing the University of Ottawa School of Medicine.