Urinary incontinence is a common and distressing condition, which, although not life-threatening, is known to have a significant effect on quality of life. The incidence of urinary incontinence increases with age and while stress urinary incontinence is more common in younger women, symptoms suggestive of overactive bladder are more common with increasing age. All women complaining of incontinence require simple investigation, and many will benefit from conservative and medical treatments, which may be instituted in primary care. Further investigation in the secondary-care setting should be reserved for those women with refractory or unusual symptoms. The aim of this paper is to review the epidemiology and pathophysiology of common causes of urinary incontinence in younger, premenopausal women, and to review the current algorithms for investigation and management. In addition, treatment paradigms covering conservative, medical and surgical treatment for stress urinary incontinence and overactive bladder will be reviewed.