We identified 40 pediatric patients with urolithiasis. There were 27 boys and 13 girls. Initial symptoms were abdominal pain, with or without microscopic hematuria in 40% of the cases, and urinary tract infection/pyelonephritis in 25% of the cases. Stones were made of struvite (35% of the cases), calcium-phosphate (25%) or calcium-oxalate (20%). The high prevalence of struvite stones reflects the importance of urinary tract infection a major cause of urolithiasis in that specific age group. Hypercalciuria was the most common urinary biochemical abnormality, found in more than 50% of the children. In the absence of a spontaneous passage of the stone, extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripsy represents an excellent therapeutic option. This article emphasizes the importance of stone analysis and extensive biochemical investigations in children with urolithiasis, in order to avoid recurrence and potential progression towards chronic renal failure.