The structure, expression and function of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor were intensively studied since the cloning in 1997 and TRPV1 receptors are now considered to act as transducers and molecular integrators of nociceptive stimuli in the periphery. In contrast, spinal TRPV1 receptors were studied less extensively and their role in pain modulation is still not fully understood. This short review is a follow up on our previous summary in this area (Spicarova and Palecek 2008). The aim was to review preferentially the most recent findings concerning the role of the spinal TRPV1 receptors, published within the last five years. The update is given on the expression and function of the spinal TRPV1 receptors, their activation by endogenous agonists, interaction between the endocannabinoid and endovanillod system and possible role of the spinal TRPV1 receptors in pathological pain states. There is now mounting evidence that TRPV1 receptors may be an important element in modulation of nociceptive information at the spinal cord level and represent an interesting target for analgesic therapy.