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An update on hepatitis C virus genotype distribution in Jordan: a 12-year retrospective study from a tertiary care teaching hospital in Amman

Authors
  • Sallam, Malik1, 2, 3
  • Batarseh, Rawan2
  • Natsheh, Anas1, 2
  • Abbadi, Jumana1, 2
  • Al-Fraihat, Esraa1, 2
  • Yaseen, Alaa’1
  • Kaddomi, Doaa4
  • Khamees, Nadia4
  • Mahafzah, Azmi1, 2
  • Şahin, Gülşen Özkaya3, 5
  • 1 the University of Jordan, Queen Rania Al-Abdullah Street-Aljubeiha, Amman, 11942, Jordan , Amman (Jordan)
  • 2 Jordan University Hospital, Queen Rania Al-Abdullah Street-Aljubeiha, Amman, 11942, Jordan , Amman (Jordan)
  • 3 Lund University, Malmö, 22100, Sweden , Malmö (Sweden)
  • 4 Jordan University Hospital, Amman, 11942, Jordan , Amman (Jordan)
  • 5 Skåne University Hospital, Lund, 22100, Sweden , Lund (Sweden)
Type
Published Article
Journal
BMC Infectious Diseases
Publisher
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
Dec 31, 2019
Volume
20
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4735-3
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundNucleic acid hybridization (NAH) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a practical and reliable tool for virus genotyping. Genotype assignment is an important factor in the prediction of treatment success in chronic hepatitis C patients. The aim of this study was to determine the genotype distribution among HCV clinical isolates in Jordan between 2007 and 2018.MethodsElectronic and paper-based clinical data registry records from 2007 to 2018 at the Jordan University Hospital (JUH) were retrospectively examined for individuals with HCV genotype, HCV viral load, and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) testing results. Genotype determination was based on NAH technique using the HCV 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) with 386 requests available from 342 unique individuals.ResultsA total of 263 out of 342 unique individuals (76.9%) had genotyping results available for final analysis with 259 individuals each having a single genotyping result. The most common HCV genotypes in the study were: genotype 4 (n = 142, 54.0%), genotype 1 (n = 87, 33.1%), genotype 3 (n = 16, 6.1%), genotype 2 (n = 9, 3.4%), other undetermined genotypes (n = 5, 1.9%) and mixed infections (n = 4, 1.5%). Sub-genotyping results were available for 46 individuals as follows: sub-genotype 4c/d (n = 13, 28.3%), sub-genotype 1a (n = 11, 23.9%), sub-genotype 1b (n = 10, 21.7%), sub-genotype 4a (n = 8, 17.4%), sub-genotype 3a (n = 2, 4.3%), sub-genotypes 2a/c and 4 h (n = 1, 2.2% for both). Individuals infected with genotype 1 showed higher viral load when compared to those infected with genotype 4 (p = 0.048, t-test). Younger HCV-infected individuals (< 52 years) had higher ALT levels compared to older individuals (p = 0.036, t-test). Self-reported risk factors for HCV acquisition included: history of previous surgery, invasive dental procedures, and blood transfusion, delivery at home, circumcision at home and wet cupping therapy (hijama).ConclusionsHigh genetic diversity of HCV was found in Jordan, with genotypes 4 and 1 as the most prevalent genotypes co-circulating in the country. Potential impact of virus genotype on disease markers (viral load, ALT) was detected and needs further assessment. The study can be helpful to plan for future prevention and management of HCV infection in Jordan.

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