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Untangling the Contributions of Sex-Specific Gene Regulation and X-Chromosome Dosage to Sex-Biased Gene Expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

Authors
  • Kramer, Maxwell1
  • Rao, Prashant1
  • Ercan, Sevinc2
  • 1 Department of Biology, Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, New York University, New York 10003.
  • 2 Department of Biology, Center for Genomics and Systems Biology, New York University, New York 10003 [email protected]
Type
Published Article
Journal
Genetics
Publisher
The Genetics Society of America
Publication Date
Sep 01, 2016
Volume
204
Issue
1
Pages
355–369
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1534/genetics.116.190298
PMID: 27356611
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Dosage compensation mechanisms equalize the level of X chromosome expression between sexes. Yet the X chromosome is often enriched for genes exhibiting sex-biased, i.e., imbalanced expression. The relationship between X chromosome dosage compensation and sex-biased gene expression remains largely unexplored. Most studies determine sex-biased gene expression without distinguishing between contributions from X chromosome copy number (dose) and the animal's sex. Here, we uncoupled X chromosome dose from sex-specific gene regulation in Caenorhabditis elegans to determine the effect of each on X expression. In early embryogenesis, when dosage compensation is not yet fully active, X chromosome dose drives the hermaphrodite-biased expression of many X-linked genes, including several genes that were shown to be responsible for hermaphrodite fate. A similar effect is seen in the C. elegans germline, where X chromosome dose contributes to higher hermaphrodite X expression, suggesting that lack of dosage compensation in the germline may have a role in supporting higher expression of X chromosomal genes with female-biased functions in the gonad. In the soma, dosage compensation effectively balances X expression between the sexes. As a result, somatic sex-biased expression is almost entirely due to sex-specific gene regulation. These results suggest that lack of dosage compensation in different tissues and developmental stages allow X chromosome copy number to contribute to sex-biased gene expression and function. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

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