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Unravelling hidden components of the chloroplast envelope proteome: opportunities and limits of better MS sensitivity

  • Bouchnak, Imen
  • Brugière, Sabine
  • Moyet, Lucas
  • Le Gall, Sophie
  • Salvi, Daniel
  • Kuntz, Marcel
  • Tardif, Marianne
  • Rolland, Norbert
Publication Date
Apr 08, 2019
DOI: 10.1074/mcp.RA118.000988
PMID: 30962257
OAI: oai:HAL:hal-02151114v1
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The chloroplast is a major plant cell organelle that fulfills essential metabolic and biosynthetic functions. Located at the interface between the chloroplast and other cell compartments, the chloroplast envelope system is a strategic barrier controlling the exchange of ions, metabolites and proteins, thus regulating essential metabolic functions (synthesis of hormones precursors, amino acids, pigments, sugars, vitamins, lipids, nucleotides…) of the plant cell. However, unraveling the contents of the chloroplast envelope proteome remains a difficult challenge; many proteins constituting this functional double membrane system remain to be identified. Indeed, the envelope contains only 1% of the chloroplast proteins (i.e. 0.4% of the whole cell proteome). In other words, most envelope proteins are so rare at the cell, chloroplast, or even envelope level, that they remained undetectable using targeted MS studies. Cross-contamination of chloroplast sub-compartments by each other and by other cell compartments during cell fractionation, impedes accurate localization of many envelope proteins. The aim of the present study was to take advantage of technologically improved MS sensitivity to better define the proteome of the chloroplast envelope (differentiate genuine envelope proteins from contaminants). This MS-based analysis relied on an enrichment factor that was calculated for each protein identified in purified envelope fractions as compared to the value obtained for the same protein in crude cell extracts. Using this approach, a total of 1269 proteins were detected in purified envelope fractions, of which, 462 could be assigned an envelope localization by combining MS-based spectral count analyses with manual annotation using data from the literature and prediction tools. Many of such proteins being previously unknown envelope components, these data constitute a new resource of significant value to the broader plant science community aiming to define principles and molecular mechanisms controlling fundamental aspects of plastid biogenesis and functions.

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