Sexual violence (SV) is a major public health, judicial and societal concern in Belgium. A comparative and representative study of SV in Belgium is still lacking. SV may induce long lasting sexual, reproductive, physical and mental ill-health affecting the victim and his/her peers, offspring and community. People exposed to violence during childhood are susceptible to subsequent (re)victimization, perpetration and maladaptive parental practices, which contributes to the intergenerational transmission of violence. The complex mechanisms behind coping behaviours as well as the effectiveness of response measures to all genders has not been studied. At political level in Belgium, the current national action plan on violence advocates a holistic management of SV victims. Furthermore, a new Ministerial Guideline on the Sexual Aggression Set (SAS) has just been issued while Sexual Assault Care Centres (SACC) are being piloted. The recent transfer of competences to the regions reorganises the judicial landscape. Hence the necessity to conduct a Belgian representative prevalence SV study examining all vulnerabilities to victimisation and perpetration.