Prolongation of the safe period of ischemia of the heart is an efficient way to overcome donor organ shortage, as demonstrated in renal and hepatic transplantation. We present the results of a prospective, randomized study comparing preservation with University of Wisconsin solution (UWS) versus St. Thomas' Hospital solution (STS) in clinical heart transplantation. A total of 39 patients were enrolled in the study (n = 20 for UWS and n = 19 for STS). Hemodynamic, electron microscopic, and biochemical evaluation did not reveal any significant differences in postoperative myocardial performance. Only the number of intraoperative defibrillations (0.82 for UWS versus 1.7 for STS) and the rhythm stability after reperfusion (13/20 UWS hearts versus 6/19 STS hearts in sinus rhythm) were significantly different. Heart preservation with UWS and STS appears to be of comparable efficacy at mean ischemic times of less than 4 hours.