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Unique Properties and Behavior of Nonmercerized Type-II Cellulose Nanocrystals as Carbon Nanotube Biocompatible Dispersants.

Authors
  • González-Domínguez, Jose M1
  • Ansón-Casaos, Alejandro1
  • Grasa, Laura2, 3, 4
  • Abenia, Luis1
  • Salvador, Alba1
  • Colom, Eduardo1
  • Mesonero, Jose E2, 3, 4
  • García-Bordejé, J Enrique1
  • Benito, Ana M1
  • Maser, Wolfgang K1
  • 1 Group of Carbon Nanostructures and Nanotechnology , Instituto de Carboquímica ICB-CSIC , C/Miguel Luesma Castán 4 , 50018 Zaragoza , Spain. , (Spain)
  • 2 Departamento de Farmacología y Fisiología, Facultad de Veterinaria , Universidad de Zaragoza , C/Miguel Servet s/n , 50013 Zaragoza , Spain. , (Spain)
  • 3 Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria de Aragón (IIS Aragón) , 50009 Zaragoza , Spain. , (Spain)
  • 4 Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón (IA2) , 50013 Zaragoza , Spain. , (Spain)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Biomacromolecules
Publisher
American Chemical Society
Publication Date
Aug 12, 2019
Volume
20
Issue
8
Pages
3147–3160
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1021/acs.biomac.9b00722
PMID: 31251612
Source
Medline
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Nanocellulose is increasingly being investigated as a paradigm of a sustainable nanomaterial because of its extraordinary physical and chemical properties, together with its renewable nature and worldwide abundance. The rich structural diversity of cellulose materials is represented by different crystalline allomorphs, from which types I and II stand out. While type I is naturally and ubiquitously present, type II is man-made and requires harsh and caustic synthesis conditions such as the so-called mercerization process. Here, we provide an optimal scenario to obtain either type-I or II nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) by a mercerization-free method consisting only of the acid hydrolysis commonly used to produce nanocellulose from microcellulose. The possibility of having nonmercerized type-II NCC acquires a great relevance since this nanostructure shows particularly appealing properties. Moreover, an entangled and wrapped system arises when used as a dispersing agent for single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs), significantly different from that of type I. The biological testing of each NCC type and their respective SWCNT-NCC dispersions in human intestinal (Caco-2) cells reveals a general innocuous behavior in both cancer and normal stages of differentiation; however, the type-II-based SWCNT-NCC dispersions display cytotoxicity for cancer cells while enhancing mitochondrial metabolism of normal cells.

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