The AML1 (CBFA2) gene is the most frequent target of chromosomal rearrangements observed in human acute leukemia. These rearrangements include the commonly reported t(8;21)(q22;q22) or AML1/ETO fusion in AML-M2, the t(3;21)(q26;q22) or AML1 fusion with one of three genes, MDS1, EAP or EVI1, in therapy-related AML and MDS, as well as in blast crisis in CML and the t(12;21)(p13;q22) or TEL/AML1 fusion in B-cell ALL. In addition to the t(3;21), other AML1 translocations have also been reported in therapy-related MDS and AML, particularly after treatment with topoisomerase II inhibitors. AML1 gene rearrangements have also been observed less frequently with numerous other chromosomal partners. Here, we describe a patient with AML-M4 and a previously unreported rearrangement involving the AML1 locus and an unknown locus on the short arm of chromosome 1 at 1p32.