BackgroundHaemoptysis is an uncommon presenting symptom in children and is usually caused by acute lower respiratory tract infection or foreign body aspiration. We report a rare case of right unilateral pulmonary vein atresia (PVA) as the underlying aetiology of recurrent haemoptysis in a child.Case presentationA 4 years old girl presented with history of recurrent haemoptysis. Bronchoscopic evaluation excluded a foreign body aspiration but revealed right bronchial mucosal hyperaemia and varices. Diagnosis of right unilateral PVA was suspected on transthoracic echocardiography which demonstrated hypoplastic right pulmonary artery and non-visualization of right pulmonary veins. Final diagnosis was confirmed on cardiac CT angiography. A conservative treatment approach was opted with consideration for pneumonectomy in future when she is older.ConclusionRarer causes should be considered when investigating for recurrent haemoptysis in children. Bronchoscopy and cardiac imaging are useful tools to establish the diagnosis of unilateral PVA in our case.