In stress conditions, as neoplastic transformation, amino acids serve not only as nutrients to maintain the cell survival but also as mediators of several regulatory pathways which are involved in apoptosis and autophagy. Especially, under glucose deprivation, in order to maintain the cell survival, proline and glutamine together with other glutamine-derived products such as glutamate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and ornithine serve as alternative sources of energy. They are substrates for production of pyrroline-5-carboxylate which is the product of conversion of proline by proline dehydrogenase/ proline oxidase (PRODH/POX) to produce ATP for protective autophagy or reactive oxygen species for apoptosis. Interconversion of proline, ornithine, and glutamate may therefore regulate PRODH/POX-dependent apoptosis/autophagy. The key amino acid is proline, circulating between mitochondria and cytoplasm in the proline cycle. This shuttle is known as proline cycle. It is coupled to pentose phosphate pathway producing nucleotides for DNA biosynthesis. PRODH/POX is also linked to p53 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent pathways. Proline availability for PRODH/POX-dependent apoptosis/autophagy is regulated at the level of collagen biosynthesis (proline utilizing process) and prolidase activity (proline supporting process). In this review, we suggest that amino acid metabolism linking TCA and Urea cycles affect PRODH/POX-dependent apoptosis/autophagy and the knowledge might be useful to targeted cancer therapy.