Southern France, like the rest of the world, is facing the emergence of diseases affecting plants, animals and humans, of which causative agents (viruses, parasites, bacteria) are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Global changes are accelerating the emergence and spread of these diseases. After presenting some examples related to vectors of yellow fever and dengue viruses (Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (Hyalomma marginatum), Bluetongue (Culicoides sp.), and the phytopathogen Xylella fastidiosa (Hemiptera spp.), we will discuss what are the intrinsic and extrinsic factors that make an arthropod a vector in a given place and at a given time. We also propose some thoughts regarding these emergences, possible scenarios for their evolution and some recommendations for the future.