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Understanding Nasal Emission During Speech Production: A Review of Types, Terminology, and Causality.

Authors
  • Oren, Liran1
  • Kummer, Ann2, 3
  • Boyce, Suzanne4
  • 1 Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
  • 2 Division of Speech-Language Pathology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
  • 3 Clinical Pediatrics and Otolaryngology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
  • 4 Department of Communication Sciences & Disorders, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, USA.
Type
Published Article
Journal
The Cleft palate-craniofacial journal : official publication of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2020
Volume
57
Issue
1
Pages
123–126
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1177/1055665619858873
PMID: 31262198
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

There are several different types of nasal emission that can occur during speech due to either velopharyngeal dysfunction or abnormal articulation in the pharynx. Nasal emission can be inaudible or very loud and distracting, depending on the size of the velopharyngeal opening and the physics of the flow. Nasal emission can be obligatory and/or compensatory (due to abnormal structure) or it can be caused by a misarticulation that results in a substitution of a pharyngeal sound for an oral sound, despite normal velopharyngeal structure. Nasal emission can occur on all pressure-sensitive phonemes or it can be phoneme-specific. Although it is generally recognized that the loud and distracting form of nasal emission (called nasal turbulence or nasal rustle) is due to a small velopharyngeal opening, the causality of the distracted sound is debated. This article provides a brief review of the types of nasal emission, the terms used to describe it, and the potential causes. This article also stresses the need for further research to clarify the causality of the sound generated by a small velopharyngeal opening.

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