In Latin America, transgender women (transwomen or male to female transgenders) have been included in MSM research but without addressing their specific needs in terms of the HIV/AIDS. We present results of the first seroepidemiologic study designed for transwomen in Peru. We conducted a study using respondent driven sampling to recruit transwomen from Lima. Our survey explored sociodemographic characteristics, gender enhancement procedures and sexual behavior. In addition, we conducted laboratory based HIV, genital herpes (HSV2) and syphilis testing. A total of 450 transwomen were recruited between April and July 2009. HIV prevalence was 30%, HSV2: 79% and syphilis: 23%. Sex-work was the main economic activity (64%). Gender enhancement procedures were reported by 70% of the population. Multivariable analysis showed HIV infection to be associated with being older than 35 recent, syphilis infection and HSV2 infection. Transwomen are the group most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS in Peru.