In this Letter, we prove the unconditional security of the single-photon differential phase shift quantum key distribution (DPS-QKD) protocol, based on the conversion to an equivalent entanglement-based protocol. We estimate the upper bound of the phase error rate from the bit error rate, and show that the DPS-QKD protocol can generate an unconditionally secure key when the bit error rate is not greater than 4.12%. This proof is the first step to the unconditional security proof of a coherent state DPS-QKD.
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The corresponding record at NLM can be accessed at https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19905739