As is well known, autofiction is, also in Latin-America, a dominant tendency in contemporary narrative prose. In their texts, which are hard to classify within one genre, major representatives of this tendency, such as Sergio Chejfec, Alejandro Zambra, Patricio Pron, Valeria Luiselli or Rodrigo Rey Rosa, combine their own experiences with invented ones. At the same time, we notice a remarkable upheaval of the documentary. This « Return to the Real » is obvious in several ways: in how aspects of reality are approached from self-experience or in the need of showing and intervening in the extra literary reality. Through three case studies (texts by Chejfec, Rey Rosa and Halfon), this article examines how the tension between fact and fiction takes concrete substance and which are the most frequently used documentary methods. We will also examine in how far the current use of the documentary genre differs from that in previous periods and to which specific epistemological presuppositions the current practice responds.