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Uma abordagem relacional da atenção à saúde a partir da terra indígena Xapecó

  • Ghiggi Junior, Ari
Publication Date
Jan 01, 2015
Repositório Institucional da UFSC
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Abstract : This ethnography follows the therapeutic dynamics of the healthcare field that originate in the Xapecó Indigenous Reservation (Terra Indígena Xapecó - TIX). Located in the west of the state of Santa Catarina, Brazil, it is in a region marked by structural violence that relegates the native population to a subaltern position in relation to the basic conditions of citizenship and survival. The theme of health care is here taken as a key for demonstrating the health conditions of the Kaingang people as well as for revealing the richness of strategies and social practices that portray the contact between indigenous people and the neighboring population. Besides one of interethnic context, the health care field found in the TIX is an intermedical zone marked by the interpenetration of different health care models and by hybridism between medical traditions. To understand the therapeutic dynamics in this field, a relational approach was used that began from two interrelated viewpoints: one the one hand, that which valued intentionality in the search and, on the other, that of the therapeutic offer. In the case of the search for therapy, the analysis of therapeutic itineraries showed autonomy and empowerment of the individuals and domestic groups in their articulation of the different forms of health care used in the pragmatic actions taken to resolve the illnesses they suffer ? in addition to their transit and circulation in various locations of the region and beyond. Regarding therapeutic offer, it was possible to identify and explore the plurality of resources that guide the choices of the Kaingang in their itineraries. This dimension was approached through four therapeutic networks found on the reservation: believers and the Evangelical churches, ?traditional? Catholics, Pastoral of Health assistance, and official health care services. The analysis of such networks, here understood as organizational arrangements, emphasized the agents? action and also the consolidation of spaces, rituals and practices that transcend the limits of the TIX. The analysis of Kaingang in a relational context had as a general purpose the problematization of Brazil?s National Policy for Indigenous Health Care (Política Nacional de Atenção à Saúde dos Povos Indígenas ? PNASPI), focusing more specifically on the principle of the differentiated attention that calls for the respect for traditional practices and their articulation with the routines of the official health services. Such problematization counters the essentialized notion of culture and the image of a generic and isolated Indian that impregnate policymaking conceptions and attitudesof health care professionals, curtailing the rights of indigenous peoples as Brazilian citizens.

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