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Ultra-wide field and new wide field composite retinal image registration with AI-enabled pipeline and 3D distortion correction algorithm

  • Kalaw, Fritz Gerald P
  • Cavichini, Melina
  • Zhang, Junkang
  • Wen, Bo
  • Lin, Andrew C
  • Heinke, Anna
  • Nguyen, Truong
  • An, Cheolhong
  • Bartsch, Dirk-Uwe G
  • Cheng, Lingyun
  • Freeman, William R
Publication Date
Apr 01, 2024
eScholarship - University of California
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PurposeThis study aimed to compare a new Artificial Intelligence (AI) method to conventional mathematical warping in accurately overlaying peripheral retinal vessels from two different imaging devices: confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO) wide-field images and SLO ultra-wide field images.MethodsImages were captured using the Heidelberg Spectralis 55-degree field-of-view and Optos ultra-wide field. The conventional mathematical warping was performed using Random Sample Consensus-Sample and Consensus sets (RANSAC-SC). This was compared to an AI alignment algorithm based on a one-way forward registration procedure consisting of full Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) with Outlier Rejection (OR CNN), as well as an iterative 3D camera pose optimization process (OR CNN + Distortion Correction [DC]). Images were provided in a checkerboard pattern, and peripheral vessels were graded in four quadrants based on alignment to the adjacent box.ResultsA total of 660 boxes were analysed from 55 eyes. Dice scores were compared between the three methods (RANSAC-SC/OR CNN/OR CNN + DC): 0.3341/0.4665/4784 for fold 1-2 and 0.3315/0.4494/4596 for fold 2-1 in composite images. The images composed using the OR CNN + DC have a median rating of 4 (out of 5) versus 2 using RANSAC-SC. The odds of getting a higher grading level are 4.8 times higher using our OR CNN + DC than RANSAC-SC (p < 0.0001).ConclusionPeripheral retinal vessel alignment performed better using our AI algorithm than RANSAC-SC. This may help improve co-localizing retinal anatomy and pathology with our algorithm.

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