This study aimed to evaluate the extent of remodelling of intra-decidual segments of the spiral arteries in human deciduas between the 6th and 10th gestational weeks in women with unexplained recurrent miscarriages (RM) in comparison to gestational-matched controls. A possible association with the number, immunoexpressive behaviour and ultrastructural changes of decidual natural killer cells (dNKCs) was investigated. Decidual biopsies were obtained from RM cases (n = 40) and women with no history of spontaneous miscarriage and at least one live birth at term (n = 30). Staining was performed using PAS, anti-CD34 and anti-CD56 antibodies, using an avidin-biotin-peroxides technique. Analysis by means of light and transmission electron microscopy was employed. To determine the extent of remodelling of decidual vessels, a quantitative score was analysed using histological criteria of vascular transformation and then related to the number of CD56(+) dNKCs. In RM, dNKCs were distributed among decidual cells and around the vessels. They possessed numerous polyploidic protrusions on cell membranes crossing from one cell to another. The cells became more irregular and exhibited heterogeneous electron-dense granules in their cytoplasm compared to controls. The non-remodelling score and number of dNKCs were significantly increased in RM group (p < 0.001). The number of dNKCs was significantly correlated with the scores in both control (r = 0.491; p = 0.006) and RM (r = 0.852; p < 0.001) groups. It appears that dNKCs play a key role in impaired decidual artery remodelling that may be involved with early RM. This may be due to increased numbers of cells or impaired cellular interactions resulting from alterations to the ultrastructure.