Photometric evidence for a reversible, red-light induced transmission decrease in excised leaf tissue or the thalli of certain marine algae has been obtained under conditions which correspond to the occurrence of a light-induced shrinkage of chloroplasts within the cells. Evidence supporting this conclusion is: A) The kinetics of the nonspecific transmission changes are similar to those observed in chloroplasts in vitro. B) The magnitude of the response is larger than could be accounted for by any known pigment which absorbs at 546 mmu. C) The light-induced transmission changes are optimal at pH 5.5 to 6.5 in the presence of electron flow cofactors and weak acid anions, conditions which are optimal for light-induced chloroplast shrinkage in isolated chloroplasts. D) Examination of chloroplast ultrastructure in dark incubated and illuminated chloroplasts reveals a flattening of the chloroplast structure and shrinkage.