Ultrastructural parameters related to synaptic release and their correlation with synaptic connectivity were analyzed in the low-threshold mechanoreceptive vibrissa afferent boutons in laminae III and IV of the trigeminal caudal nucleus (Vc). Rapidly adapting vibrissa afferents were intra-axonally labeled, and quantitative ultrastructural analyses with serial sections were performed on the labeled boutons and their presynaptic endings (p-endings). The volume of the labeled boutons was widely distributed from small to large ones (0.8~12.3 µm(3)), whereas the p-endings were small and uniform in size. The volume of the labeled boutons was positively correlated with the ultrastructural parameters such as mitochondrial volume (correlation coefficient, r=0.96), active zone area (r=0.82) and apposed surface area (r=0.79). Vesicle density (r=-0.18) showed little correlation to the volume of labeled boutons, suggesting that the total vesicle number of a bouton is proportional to its volume. In addition, the bouton volume was positively correlated with the number of p-endings (r=0.52) and with the number of dendrites postsynaptic to the labeled bouton (r=0.83). These findings suggest that low-threshold mechanoreception conveyed through vibrissa afferents is processed in a bouton size-dependent manner in the Vc, which may contribute to the sensory-motor function of laminae III/IV in Vc.