PURPOSE: To report the use of ultrasound biomicroscopy for preoperative assessment of anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy. METHODS: Case report. In a 35-year-old man with tractional retinal detachment and anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy, we used ultrasound biomicroscopy with UX-02 (Rion Co Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) to perform the preoperative analysis of the ciliary body, anterior vitreous, and detached peripheral retina. RESULTS: In all meridians, the posterior insertion of the vitreous was drawn anteriorly, creating a retinal trough, and the meridian distance between the anterior and posterior vitreous base insertions was reduced. Retinochoroidal detachment was detected posterior to the anterior vitreous base insertion. Based on these imagings, sclerotomy locations were selected. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound biomicroscopy may be useful to assess anterior proliferative vitreoretinopathy preoperatively and to decide on sclerotomy sites.